Mobile Computer Technology

Mobile Technology

Mobile technology is the technology used in cellular communication. Mobile code division multiple access (CDMA) technology has evolved quickly during the last few years. Ever since the beginning of this millennium, a standard mobile device has progressed from just a simple two-way pager to a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, a fixed web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld game console. Numerous experts argue that the future of computer technology is in mobile computing with wireless networking. Mobile computing by way of tablet computers is becoming more popular. Tablets are now available on 3G as well as 4G networks.

4G Networking

One of the most significant features of 4G mobile networks is the dominance of high-speed packet transmissions or traffic burst within channels. The same codes used for 2G/3G networks are applied to 4G mobile or wireless networks. Recent studies have indicated that traditional multilayer network architecture based on the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model may not be suitable for 4G mobile network, whereby transactions of short packets will be the vital part of traffic within the channels. As the packets from different mobiles carry totally differing channel physiognomies, the receiver should execute all required algorithms, such as channel estimation, interactions with all upper layers and so on, within a limited time period.

5G Networks

Five years from now (that being in 2020), humanity will be surrounded with faster, more powerful wireless networks. Presently, the networks that drive our smartphones and Internet based connected devices are mainly based on 3G and 4G technologies. However, higher-performance fifth-generation technology, referred to as 5G, is coming, and it promises to take us to greater heights.

5G is considered key in regards to “The Internet of Things” (IoT), the name given to the idea of encompassing just about anything and everything into the Internet. Billions of sensors will be built into cars, appliances, health monitors, security systems, door locks and wearables. Gartner, an Analyst firm predicts that the amount of networked devices will rise up from approximately 5 billion in 2015 to 25 billion by 2020.

According to Femi Adeyemi, lead mobile architect at Fujitsu. We shall have tags that will let us know of our children’s whereabouts and when they get back home and cars will be autonomously managed along the highways.

Additionally, 5G networks will be roughly 20 times faster than 4G networks. That speed opens up fascinating new capabilities. Self-driving cars can make time-critical decisions. Video chats will create the illusion of feeling like being all in the same room. And cities will be able to monitor traffic congestion, parking demands and pollution levels — and in response feed that data to your smart vehicle in real time or any smart device used for monitoring purposes.

In terms of data speed, according to the International Telecommunication Union(ITU), they decided that 5G compliant network will have to offer data speeds of up to 20Gbps(Gigabits per second) of which is 20 times faster than the 1 Gbps specifications for 4G networks. With 5G networks, it will open up access to higher 4K video content resolution as well as holographic technology via mobile networks. The 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games will give a demonstration of 5G technology in action.

Operating Systems

Various types of mobile operating systems (OS) are available for smartphones which included Android, IOS, Blackberry OS, WebOS, Symbian, Bada and Windows mobile. Among the most popular are the Android and Apple iPhone. The Android mobile operating system (OS) is developed by Google and is the first fully open source mobile OS, meaning that it is free for any cell phone mobile network.

Since 2008 customizable operating systems allow the user to download applications or apps such as games, GPS, Utilities, as well as other tools. Any user can create and publish their own apps e.g. to Apple’s App store. The Palm Pre that uses WebOS which has functionality over the internet and can support Internet-centric programming languages such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), HTML as well as JavaScript. The Research in Motion (RIM) Blackberry is a smartphone that has a multimedia player and third-party software installation.

Future of Smartphones

The next generation of smartphones are going to be context-aware, which will take the advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors as well as data exchange capabilities. One of the key features applying to this is that the smartphones will begin keeping track of personal data, but adapt to anticipate the information needed based on individual intentions. There will be all-new applications released with the new phones, and one of them will be the X-Ray device that reveals information about any location at which the phone is pointed. One thing that companies are doing is development of software that will take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. How it has been described is that they want to make the phone a virtual mouse that is able to click the real world. For example, if you point the phone’s camera while having the live feed open, it will show text with the building and save the location of the building for future use.

Along with the future of smartphones will come the future of another device that will be known as the “Ominitouch.” This device will allow applications to be viewed and used on the arm, hand, desk, wall, or any other everyday surface. The device will use a touch sensor interface that will allow the user to access the user to access all the functions through the use of finger touch. It was developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This device uses a projector and camera that is worn on the person’s shoulder, with no controls other than the person’s fingers.

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Advancements in Computer Technology

With technology progressing as fast as it is at the present, it is a wonder we do not have a new mass-marketed gadget appearing every few minutes. Personal computers, once predicted to be owned by a mere handful of individuals, are everywhere nowadays. If you are a student a personal computer is virtually a necessity. Accompanying the ever-increasing popularity of the personal computer is a plethora of gadgets and technological advancements. Though it may not be every few minutes, it seems as though every couple of months we hear about a computer with more storage space or a new device that one can connect to their computer.

Some devices that appear on the market are either completely superfluous or not so accessible to the entirety of the population, whether it is because of their cost or their limited supply. The costly devices are reserved to those who can afford them, until some new gadget replaces them and the price of these machines decreases, much like any new technology that appears on the market. Those gadgets, which are unnecessary, are not overly practical and the market for these creations is comprised mainly of those with an affinity for such devices. Inventions like webcams, while they are certainly fun to play with, are essentially unnecessary as they have no bearing on the actual operation of the computer and are used largely for leisure computer activities.

The more purposeful advancements in computer technology revolve around those, which increase the computers ability to manage certain tasks and those, which increase the storage space of the computer. Many personal computer owners find themselves craving more space to store songs or various other files and often wishing that their computer were faster. Though many computers produced today have a excessive storage space, that is, it is nearly impossible to fill a personal computer to capacity, these types of advancements permit a much speedier and more efficient functioning computer.

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Computer Technology – Career Possibilities

Computer technology degrees can help students gain the skills they need to pursue their desired career. With a number of accredited educational programs available students can study the necessary coursework for an education in this field. With an accredited school or college students can choose to specialize in a specific area of the field. Areas of specialization may include networking, graphic design, computer game programming, architecture, and much more. Degrees are available at undergraduate and graduate levels, and certificates can be earned as well.

Certificates

Certificate programs can be completed in as little as nine month’s time through an accredited educational institute. Students can choose to earn a certificate in networking, information technology, and other areas of the field. Certificates are also available through continuing education courses. Continuing education provides a way for professionals to improve their skills or learn new ones that pertain to their specific career. With an accredited certificate program students can obtain additional knowledge based on their career goals or current profession.

Associate and Bachelors Degree

With an undergraduate degree program in computer technology students can choose to earn an associates or bachelors degree. Associate degree training programs typically take two years for completion, and a bachelors degree takes four years to obtain. Students will have the opportunity to study various subjects based on their desired degree level and career. Coursework may consist of studying installation, computer repair, computer support, system analysis, and many other related subjects. With an accredited associates or bachelors degree in computer technology students can train for a career as graphic designers, webmasters, computer programmers, computer technicians, and much more. By earning an accredited undergraduate degree students will have the training needed to enter the workforce or pursue a graduate degree in this exciting field.

Masters and Doctorates Degree

Earning a graduate degree can be done by enrolling in an accredited school or college for computer technology. Students have the opportunity to choose from a masters or doctorates degree in the field. A master’s degree can take an additional two years of study and a doctorates degree and additional four. Students must hold a bachelor’s prior to pursuing a masters or doctorates degree. Courses of study will vary depending on the level of degree, educational program, and desired profession. With an accredited school or college coursework may include network management, computer maintenance, database management, systems applications, and more. Students will be able to enter into careers as computer support specialists, field technicians, system coordinators, and more. By obtaining a graduate degree students will be on their way to an exciting new career.

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As the scuffles between PC vs. Mac and IE vs. Firefox is raging on, there is another battle being carried on that is somewhat unobserved. It is legacy computing vs. Cloud computing. If you are ignorant of these terms, here is an overview.

Cloud Computing is a hosted service over the internet. It is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers in order to keep up facts and figures, and applications. Today it is getting priority because the project application was too overstuffed that it required too much maintenance and support. You didn’t pay for what you used, but for the whole features that came up with the software even if you need a small percentage of the features. It lets the consumers and businesses use applications without installation and access their personal files on any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more well-organized computing by integrating data storage, processing and data transmission rate. Cloud computing hosted services encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that extends IT’s existing capabilities. It is a means to boost skill or add competencies on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software.

A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc.. Having an internet connection is all that you need first and you can set off by sending emails. The server and email management software is all in the internet, that is in the cloud, and is entirely dealt with by the cloud service provider Yahoo, Google etc.. This technology functions in three segments: application, storage, and connectivity. All over the world different purposes of businesses and individuals are served in each of the segments.

In a cloud computing system, there’s a considerable shift of workload. Local computers no longer have to take the load of heavy lifting at the time of running applications. This latest computing technology will handle them instead. The demands of hardware and software on the user’s side will decrease. The only thing the user’s computer needs to be able to run is the interface system. This is as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud’s network takes care of the rest.

There are three distinctive characteristics that have differentiated cloud computing from traditional hosting. Firstly, it is sold on demand by minute or hour. Secondly, it is elastic. A user can enjoy as much or as little of the services as they demanded at any given time. Thirdly, the service is fully managed by the provider. The significant enhancement in Virtualization and circulated computing, as well as improved access to high-speed internet, has accelerated interest in cloud computing.

The cloud computing services can be public or private. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the internet. A private cloud is a proprietary network. It is also a data center that provides hosted services to a limited number of people. When public cloud resources are used by a service provider to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy admittance to computing resources and IT services. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control, and database processing. Because the service provider controls both the applications and the data, the user can use the service from anywhere freely”.’

We are fast moving towards this kind of computing society. With cloud computing gets its speedy hold in the world of internet, you’ll have a very charming possibility of future prospect. You need to get all the specialized technical terminologies like off-site, third-party provider, access via internet, provisioning, system interface, shared resources or common versions etc.. With this innovation, users have access to their information through the Web. So it’s accessible from anywhere they need it.

Cloud computing is a helpful tool for businessmen who want to store and maintain databases. It’s an easy way to organize information in different departments while allowing for company-wide collaboration. Services offered by cloud computing are actual software, but it is never installed on a computer. This is what’s known as software-as-a-service, or SaaS. The software is accessed through the Internet. A big benefit that is often enjoyed by the companies who use cloud services is that they are free from fear of losing, or having unsecured data. There’s no need to save all the time in case a computer collapse. There’s no in-house server required for daily backup, either. All of the IT worries are almost vanished. Still security is maintained, because all the information is password accessible.

The phrase ‘Cloud Computing’ refers to cloud of data that hovers on the internet. These can be obtained and retrieved on any computing gadget from anywhere with the internet connection. You need not save files to your hard disk. All data is saved automatically. Speedy browsers are necessary to run a cloud application well. What’s more, the cloud also offers the storage facility of the files online. You may wonder, why we need cloud computing while our desktop or laptop can perform this kind of services. Cloud Computing is created for the tomorrow’s world for different kinds of computing services to make the functionality and data we require constantly accessible no matter where we are across the world, and no matter what computing devices we are using to have instant access to the internet.

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Computer Technology Education Online

Are you looking to study computer technology but are unable to go to a school and take your courses? Taking computer technology courses online is one of the most convenient and best option for you. You are not only able to study almost anything you want on computer technology but you are able to do it at any hour of the day and at your own time. So if you are an adult who has a job or a student who does not want to go to a college, computer technology education online is one of the best choice for you.

If you take up an online distance learning program on computer technology, you will be learning everything about computers, network maintenance and repairs. The online computer technology schools will also teach you about computer programming. You will learn how to troubleshoot computers, install and support networks, hard drives, manage memory, use graphics, control viruses, recover lost data, etc. If you have already received a degree in computer science I would recommend that you continue your education in computer technology as this may open up new career opportunities for you.

When you enroll into an online computer technology school you will be able to choose many different courses that will help you in your career as a professional computer technologist. If you do not want to take courses that lead to your professional certification, you can also choose to get your online degree in computer sciences. You are able to get an associates degree to a masters degree online just as if you were attending colleges.

There are many different factors that change depending on the courses that you do. Some of the factors are the length of the course, the curriculum you do, the price you will pay for tuition, etc. If you are serious about taking courses online you should shop around and look for the best deal.

Once you have graduated you are able to apply for many positions ranging from computer support specialist, system coordinator, electronics and field technician, and many, many more computer related jobs. With the computer industry on the rise, the need for computer specialists is on the rise too and taking computer technology online courses is something you should definitely consider doing. If you have a basic to advanced knowledge of computers the opportunities in the business world will favor you in many ways. Hence, getting your computer technology education online is something you should seriously consider.

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Effective Planning and Implementation of Computer Technology in Schools

In today’s world, the workplace has been transformed. Computer technology is present to one degree or another in virtually every job or profession. To prepare students adequately for the workplace we must recognize that integrating computer technology into the classroom is essential. To execute this integration properly, careful planning must precede implementation. We must be prepared to explore different means of implementation inasmuch as there is no perfect system or a “one size fits all” software program. Each institution must decide to what degree they will implement technology and how quickly they will do so. It is also important to appeal to educational leaders for support as well as gathering preferences from both teachers and students.

In his article, “Investing in Digital Resources” David McArthur explored the notion that the decision regarding whether or not to use technology as an educational medium has already been made. What must be done is plan carefully to ensure that the long-range goals of technology integration are properly served.

The leaders in higher education must “plan for and invest in e-learning.” (McArthur, 2004, p3) E-learning has become an accepted method of education just as the “Web” has been accepted in business and at home. Integrating the newer technologies to supplement existing learning has become imperative. When planning is performed correctly, the educational environment should be able to use technologies to increase teacher/student communication, enhance faculty morale by use of an “on-line resource center,” (McArthur, 2004, p2) use web-based programs to enhance recruitment, and better prepare students for the workplace.

There are potential problems that must be overcome when planning for technological integration. First, the technological options are myriad and only a few will be appropriate for a given school or college. Second, while many institutions become accustomed to the idea of augmenting their educational system via e-learning, it can be troublesome and radical.

Some key issues in the potential success in the adoption of e-learning can include (but is not limited to) the school or college’s present computer network capacity, the willingness of the school’s leaders to support change, current or probable resources, the potential accessibility of the e-learning services by the students.

In looking at a comprehensive long-range plan, there are a number of options available. One is “Staged Implementation.” (McArthur, 2004, p4) While the critical planning should be virtually complete, not all components of the final plan need be in place at the outset. A planned multi-year plan of implementation can be used. Not only does this allow for the development of resources, it is possible to troubleshoot elements as each stage progresses. Another is “Appropriate Outsourcing.” (McArthur, 2004, p4) Not every educational institution has the in-house resources (personnel, tools, equipment) to implement even a staged plan. Outsourcing can be both cost and time saving. While it may be difficult to convince some leaders of the potential advantage in outsourcing, especially since this type of expertise “is regarded as an educational core asset” (McArthur, 2004, p6), drawing comparisons to the business world may help to demonstrate the benefits.

In his article, “Herding Elephants: Coping with the Technological Revolution in our Schools” Scott Tunison addressed the issues of: 1. the extents to which schools need to visit computer technology and 2. The tactics used to make the most of the potential advantages and diminish the potential pitfalls in the integration of the technology.

His reference regarding “Herding Elephants” is allegorical to managing the coming technology and learning to “integrate it into the educational framework” or moving aside and letting the “technological revolution” pass by. (Tunison, 2004, p7) Either way, educational technology is not to be ignored and it cannot be allowed to manage itself.

Fundamentally speaking, much of education is unchanged from long past. The methods that have been used were for the most part appropriate for the subject at hand. A perception might be that, if the concepts to be learned have not changed then a change in teaching method is not necessary. However, even if some of the concepts have not changed, the application context as well as the learners’ context has. While computers have entered the educational environment they often have been simple substitutes for other tools that already exist and are in place; tools such as blackboards, books, etc. What this means is that the process of learning remains unchanged when new uses for the available technology are not fully utilized.

Educational reform is necessary if we are going to meet the needs of our students. If our culture has developed electronic media, animation, etc. then that is the context through which we must reach our students.

The changes that must be made can make some educators uneasy. The learning paradigm must shift from the teacher as dispenser of knowledge to the student as active learner. Tunison cites Fullan (2001) in an identification of “three broad phases to the change process.” The phases are identified as “initiation, implementation, and institutionalization”

Initiation involves some entity proposing directional change. Sometimes students ask for change and sometimes groups of teachers, administrators, and parents form committees to begin a planning process for technological integration.

Institutionalization includes the perception of importance. One might say this is the stage of “damage control.” Clear policies, well trained teachers and administrators, and a supportive school board are crucial in this stage. It is important in this stage to record relevant data regarding the program for analysis. What was well planned and conceived may still have “bugs” to work out. The analysis of the data can assist in the “tweaking” of the program.

Educators must be aware of the importance of technology in the educational environment and be prepared to integrate it. Technology is extensive in our contemporary culture and reaching our students must involve meeting their needs in the world they know. We may, in fact, reach more students and perhaps stem the tide of dropouts.

In her article, “What Students Want to Learn About Computers” Judith O’Donnell Dooling, has informed the reader that students, parents, and administrators have specific preferences with regard to computer technology.

Over time, the importance of computers and related technology has been realized. However, while spending for computers has risen, some schools have not been as successful in identifying specific computer skills and its power as a tool of learning and teaching.

Student responses were varied. Many reported that they began learning about computers at an early age, usually from a more experienced person. Some students, especially in grades four through seven thought learning independently was the most enjoyable.

Interestingly, students of both genders reported that they had a reasonable confidence in their computer abilities, but some differences in perception were evident. To a degree girls, but primarily boys, thought that computers were too technical for girls.

The experience students had prior to school, the teacher, and computer access had a significant effect on student computer learning. Even if they, at home, had seen the computer more as a toy, they began to see them more as a tool in the school setting. They recognized the importance and power of the computer as their exposure increased.

Perhaps unlike other subjects students learn in school, students exchanged computer tips, recommended hardware and software, and generally discussed the subject of computers during their lunchtime and recess.

The students also saw the importance of computer knowledge as it related to its use in the workplace after their school experiences. They observed that, no matter where you work, you would be using computers to some degree.

The teachers expressed the concern that not all shared the same proficiency. Many mentioned that often the students knew more than the teacher did. Teachers also observed that, though the students had a great deal of computer knowledge, it was often limited to games and software. Another observation was that computer curriculums vary greatly school to school.

Teachers expressed that computer knowledge needs to be relevant. That is, it needs to be applied across the curriculum and used as an integral tool of learning. All agreed that the role of teacher needs redefinition and adequate professional development provided to facilitate the needed change.

In conclusion, we have seen that computer technology in the educational setting is essential for learning in contemporary society. Selecting, planning, and implementing must be done with great care to avoid waste and potential incompatibility with the goals of the educational institution. School leaders must be convinced that paradigm shift is not an option; that teachers and students must assume new roles, and their support for new ideas is essential.

We must also be able to meet students where they are. Our culture has created systems of technology to which students are accustomed. To continue teaching in an antiquated fashion does our students a disservice, especially if we are to prepare them for the workforce following their education. We must also be aware of teacher and student preferences if we are to expect them to fully utilize the new resources.

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The Unintended Consequences of Globalism

Globalism might be good for the world economy as a whole, but does not necessarily mean it has been good for the American worker. Whether intentional or unintended, the American worker has suffered through the philosophy of free trade. Do not miss quote me, Globalism has a lot of positives. Now more than ever the people of earth are connected through the internet and can communicate information faster than any other time in history. People are exposed to different cultures and ideas, and the free flow of information is exponentially evolving our society. “Free trade” plays a big part in globalism, which is why there has been a “backlash” from non-college educated workers in wealthy countries in direct response to the effects of free trade policies. When wealthy counties openly trade with developing countries it can overvalue the wealthy countries currency, which in turn makes imports cheaper while exports become more expensive. However, according to the Economic Policy Institute, the real culprit is not the valuation of the dollar and the increasing trade deficit. (Bivens, Economic Policy Institute)

The USA has increasingly shifted its economy from manufacturing to services like banking and investing. It is cheaper to import products of manufacturing from a country that has extremely cheap labor than it is to employ American workers in the United States. This in turn means there now is a premium on college educated Americans who are filling job openings within the service industry. On the other side of the coin, manufacturing jobs are leaving the country and lowering wages of workers without a college degree. This fact coupled with increasing technology that replaces workers and a trade policy that out prices “expensive” American workers is leading to decreased wages. As the US trades more with developing countries as a percentage of GDP, the wages of unskilled workers continue to decrease. (Slaughter and Swagle, International Monetary Fund)

Though Globalism has a net increase in GDP and employment for countries involved, most of the gains from free trade is disproportionately received by the top 1% of Americans. Policies that protect corporations and their interest at the expense of the American worker exacerbate the problem. Trade policies like NAFTA and others have little protections for workers and heavily favor the multinational corporations that seek to benefit from free trade. This only adds fuel to income inequality, which for poor countries can increase economic growth while having a negative effect on rich countries. Rich countries are also at higher risk of financial crisis when they have high levels of income inequality. (Malinen, Huffington Post)

Globalism and free trade are linked very close together, which is why there is a stigma attributed to the word. There has been growing resentment within the US and other wealthy nations of globalism as a whole. They do not just condemn free trade, but openly blame minorities and marginalized groups for their decrease in wages and “eroding” their cultural dominance that they claim dominion over. This is a deadly cycle, as income inequality only feeds this type of behavior. In a country that is not adequately educating its people, more of the workers within its country will become more ignorant. With free trade putting a premium on college educated workers and decreasing wages of unskilled labor, we are now almost at a tipping point, socially and economically.

Globalism has many unintended consequences that inadvertently caused huge social and economic problems within the US. The problems that globalism is causing is not a hard fix. Reducing the income inequality will eradicate more of the negative effects of globalism. Universal Education, Universal healthcare, and a rewrite of our tax code are just a few ways to reduce income inequality. All of these possibilities are well within our means. We have to take care of these problems swiftly, before globalism becomes an integral part of our own decline. (Mason, Post-Gazette)

Bivens, Josh. “Using Standard Models to Benchmark the Costs of Globalization for American Workers without a College Degree.” Economic Policy Institute. N.p., 22 Mar. 2016. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

Malinen, Tuomas. “The Economic Consequences of Income Inequality.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 Dec. 2015. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

Mason, Bob. “Single-payer Health Care Would Help to Treat Three Separate Threats.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. N.p., 26 Oct. 2014. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

Slaughter, Matthew, and Phillip Swagel. “Economic Issues 11–Does Globalization Lower Wages and Export Jobs?” International Monetary Fund. Imf.org, Sept. 1997. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

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Global Trends in the Cosmetic Industry

Cosmetic dyes and colours: Explained

Cosmetic colours are also known as cosmetic lakes. These colours are produced by taking the help of absorption of dyes that are water-soluble onto a substrate. It makes the colour insoluble in water. Cosmetic lake colours are made by making use of unique technology. The technology helps in attaining extremely fine particles. These particles help in achieving shade consistency. In comparison water soluble colours, cosmetic lakes are much more stable & safe. They also generate vivacious and brighter colours. It has been seen that cosmetic pigments and lakes are more suitable for food products that contain fats and oils. They are also suitable for those products that do not contain enough moisture for dissolving colours.

Cosmetic dyes, on the other hand are used for making cosmetic colours & products. These dyes are widely used by the cosmetic manufacturing industries and businesses all over the world. They are primarily used for manufacturing hair dyes, lipsticks, nail polishes, shampoo as well as other personal care products. It has been seen that generally water soluble & food dyes are very easy and safe to use. These dyes are mostly used for a wide variety of applications. They include cleaning chemicals, soaps, medicine, cosmetic products etc.

Know which ones are safe for use

Be it the use of any type of cosmetic dyes or cosmetic colorants safety of use is a primary consideration. Cosmetic colours and cosmetic dyes often make use of a wide range of synthetic colours. These are often referred to as FD&C colours. They are mainly extracted through coal tar and are basically a by-product of petroleum. Research shows that some particular coal tar based dyes lead to different types of cancer. This is why the FDA regulates them. They also determine the arsenic or lead amount they contain. Thus there are many restrictions in the use of such colours.

Some global trends in Cosmetic dyes and cosmetic colours

Worldwide it is seen that North America, followed by Europe, has the largest market for colour cosmetics. This is due to innovations in colour cosmetics. Other factors also include high consumer disposable income and frequent new product launches in colour cosmetic market in the region. However Asia too is expected to show high growth rate in the colour cosmetics market in next few years. This is on account of the increasing consumer incomes and rising in awareness about personal care products in the region.

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Economic Turmoil and the Future of Brazil

For many years, Brazil has been an emerging economic hub, attracting investors from all over the world. The Brazilian economy saw an 368% increase in Gross Domestic Product growth from 2003 to 2011. In addition, Brazil took in almost half of Foreign Direct Investment flowing into South America during 2015. This doesn’t come as a surprise since it reigns as one of the major emerging national economies. However, Brazil has seen a recent economic downturn with increasing unemployment and a contracting GDP. In fact, the Brazilian government cut 2017 GDP expectations from 1.6% to 1% growth. Having been one the most lucrative foreign investments for governments to individual investors, what happened to the so-called “Country of the Future” and can Brazil regain its momentum?

Back in 2015, recession hit Brazil hard and the country is still struggling to get back on track. According to the CIA World Factbook, the economy contracted 32% from its peak in 2011 and unemployment reached a new high at 12.6% in 2016. Being based mostly on services, agriculture and oil, Brazil’s economy has a direct correlation with global demand. With global recession looming, Brazil is feeling the effects of a slow world economy.

Brazil is a top tourist destination offering beautiful beaches, a diverse culture and exciting festivals. However, with the world economy slowing down, people are less likely to travel abroad. Since the majority of the country’s GDP derives from the service industry, Brazil will not be able to rebound any time soon unless there is a major boost in consumer confidence.

The demand for Brazilian exports was slashed when its largest trading partner, China, entered into an economic slowdown of their own. The decrease in exports caused massive layoffs throughout the nation. The notorious economic downward spiral began by wary consumer spending as unemployment rose. Companies that tried to gain capital by borrowing in U.S. dollars found it difficult to pay back those loans as the Brazilian Real crashed 25% in the span of a year in 2015.

One of the major hits came from low oil prices and the corruption of Petrobras, a large oil company and Brazil’s largest source of investment. Brazil is major producer of oil, exporting $11.8 billion worth in 2015, according to the Observatory for Economic Complexity. OPEC delivered a major blow when the cartel decided not to cut oil production, causing oil futures prices to plunge. In order to cope with heavy losses, Petrobras was forced to sell off assets and halt future research and expansion plans.

As if things weren’t going poorly, Petrobras was also caught in a scandal with former Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff and other high office executives. From 2004 to 2012, the company had spent over $2 billion on bribes to politicians whom would allow the company to charge inflated prices for construction contracts. Now that the scandal has unfolded, Petrobras executives face jail time and the company as a whole is forced to pay billions in fines.

So what does the future hold for Brazil?

Although at the moment the future looks dim, there are still signs of hope Brazil can turn itself around. The Real has seemed to stabilize in 2016 and heads into 2017 with an upward trend. Moreover, experts’ GDP projections for 2018 through 2020 show promising figures that Brazil can restore pre-recession level growth.

Even more promising, U.S. companies are still showing faith in Brazil’s future. American Airlines plans to invest $100 million in an aircraft maintenance center in Sao Paulo. Brazilian Investment Partnership Minister Wellington Moreira Franco and many countries like the United States, United Kingdom, France and Japan agree there are still reasons to invest in Brazil. This should be seen as a sign of confidence that the Brazilian market will grow soundly with the support of both national and international investment.

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The Effects Of The Global Trade Agreement

We live in a world that is increasingly getting connected. In such a world, trade agreements are bound to expand internationally, and to think and act otherwise would be downright stupid.

These global trade agreements, as such, are either bilateral or multilateral understanding between two or multiple countries and govern the trade policies between them. These agreements have a massive impact on worldwide trade and investments and are one of the major causes responsible for shaping business relationships across the globe. And while such agreements might not affect directly affect the place where you live or operate, being aware of the current trade agreements can definitely uncover numerous opportunities.

Forming up opinions is up to you; we do not intend to initiate an argument over how good or how bad these global trade agreements are. This article aims to get you familiarized with such agreements and tell if your supply chain could be affected or not.

While a few countries have settled upon free trade agreements and are in the process of widening them, a number of other nations have formed common markets and unions; this form of development can a have a thorough effect on small-scale businesses.

Two of the most common agreements are the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) between Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Canada, Brunei, Peru, Mexico, Chile, Malaysia and Japan, and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, United States and Mexico.

Now, how such agreements impact your local business’s supply chain depends on a simple fact; whether your business is an importer, exporter or neither.

Scenario 1: You neither import nor export

It’s fairly easy to decide whether you are an importer or not, right? I understand that you do not directly source products from a foreign supplier, and technically speaking, that doesn’t make you an importer. However, trade agreements can still impact you. Your suppliers are directly affected by such regulations, and this vulnerability can affect your supply chain.

Keep the distinction in mind.

Scenario 2: You identify yourself as an importer

Owing to the low cost manufacturing in some countries, many small scale suppliers are able to compete with global giants.

With a trade agreement between two countries, most of the times, the country with lower labour costs benefits when the trade tariffs are lowered or eliminated. With trade agreements, importers usually get to source low-cost goods and it allows for the unrestricted movement of such low-cost goods through higher cost partner nation.

In case, such an agreement is dissolved, an importer would inevitably face a higher cost of goods and thus look for cheaper sourcing options, decrease their operational costs, and ultimately increase the prices, which would be borne by the customers, of course.

Scenario 3: You are an exporter

This even counts if you sell products that another firm exports because at some point or other, taxes would be levied on your sold goods. So how does it affect you? Your customers end up paying higher amounts for your products.

With a trade agreement in place between the country where the product originates and the receiving country, the very same products would move through the receiving nation freely. In such cases, you’d definitely want to keep such an agreement intact and leverage this competitive advantage you have in this particular country bound by trade regulations.

As a small or a medium sized business, it is therefore important for you to identify where your business lies with respect to global trade agreements.

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